Association of sociodemographic factors to fragility and chronic diseases in aged populations


  • Adriane Cristina Silva Sousa Federal University of Amapá - UNIFAP
  • Ariane Machado Sales Federal University of Amapá - UNIFAP
  • Marcela Fabiani Silva Dias Federal University of Amapá - UNIFAP
  • ALISSON VIEIRA COSTA Universidade Federal do Amapá - UNIFAP



aging, chronic diseases, fragility


The growth of the aging population exceeds more than 30 million elderly people in Brazil from 2012 to 2017. In general, the aging phenomenon can be explained by the wear and tear of phenotypes in the body, and consequently, cause the loss of cognitive functions, physical and psychological aspects of the elderly. Aging is favorable to make them vulnerable and subject to a series of adverse health complications, such as chronic diseases, multimorbidities and even severe levels of frailty. The objective was to investigate the association of frailty and chronic diseases with sociodemographic factors in the elderly. This study is a qualitative, descriptive narrative review, using the PUBMED database, with the following descriptors: Chronic diseases, Multimorbidity, Aging, Elderly, Frailty, Sociodemographic. It was found that frailty, together with chronic diseases, had a prevalence in variables associated with advanced age, female sex, low level of education and marital status, it is worth noting that frailty can occur in the absence of chronic diseases. Adverse health conditions in the elderly community, such as frailty and chronic diseases, need policies aimed at combating them, considering the promotion, prevention and formulation of strategies in order to offer a better quality of life to the elderly.

Author Biography

ALISSON VIEIRA COSTA, Universidade Federal do Amapá - UNIFAP

Curso de Educação Física


Andrade, J. M. et al. (2018). Frailty profile in Brazilian older adults: ELSI-Brazil. Revista de Saúde Pública, 52(02), 1-10.

Angulo, J. et al. (2020). Physical activity and exercise: Strategies to manage frailty. Redox Biology, 35(101513), 1-21.

Araújo Júnior, F. B. et al. (2019). Frailty, profile and cognition of elderly residents in ahighly socially vulnerability area. Ciência e Saúde Coletiva, 24(08), 3047-3056.

Bardin, L. (2016). Análise de conteúdo. Trad. Luís Antero Reto e Augusto Pinheiro. Lisboa: Edições 70.

Biritwum, R. B. et al. (2016). Prevalence of and factors associated with frailty and disability in older adults from China, Ghana, India, Mexico, Russia and South Africa. Maturitas, 91(01), 8-18.

Blanco-Reina, E. et al. (2021). Assessing Prevalence and Factors Related to Frailty in Community-Dwelling Older Adults: A Multinomial Logistic Analysis. Journal of Clinical Medicine, 10(16), 3576-3587.

Bovolenta, T. M. & Felicio, A. C. (2017). How do demographic transitions and public health policies affect patients with Parkinson’s disease in Brazil?. Clinical Interventions in Aging, 25(12), 197-205.

Brasil, Ministério da Saúde. Secretaria de vigilância em saúde. (2018). Plano de ações estratégicas para o enfrentamento das doenças crônicas e agravos não transmissíveis no Brasil (2021-2030). Brasília. DF.

Carneiro, J. A. et al. (2017). Frailty in the elderly: prevalence and associated factors. Revista Brasileira de Enfermagem, 70(04), 780-785.

Corbi, G. et al. (2019). Inter-relationships between Gender, Frailty and 10-Year Survival in Older Italian Adults: an observational longitudinal study. Scientific Reports, 9(01), 1-7.

Cruz, D. T. et al. (2017). Factors associated with frailty in a community-dwelling population of older adults. Revista de Saúde Pública, 51(106), 1-13.

Duarte, Y. A. O. et al. (2018). Frailty in older adults in the city of São Paulo: Prevalence and associated factors. Revista Brasileira de Epidemiologia, 21(02), 1-16.

Dugravot, A. et al. (2020). Social inequalities in multimorbidity, frailty, disability, andtransitions to mortality: a 24-year follow-up of the Whitehall II cohort study. The Lancet Public Health, 5(01), 42-50.

Farías-Antúnez, S. & Fassa, A. G. (2019). Frailty prevalence and associated factors in the elderly in Southern Brazil, 2014. Epidemiologia e Serviços de Saúde, 28(01), 1-13.

Feng, Z. et al. (2017). Risk factors and protective factors associated with incident or increase of frailty among community-dwelling older adults: A systematic review of longitudinal studies. Plos One, 12(06), 1-8.

Fhon, J. R. S. et al. (2018). Factors associated with frailty in older adults: a longitudinal study. Revista de Saúde Pública, 52(74), 1-8.

Gale, C. R.; Westbury, L. & Cooper, C. (2018). Social isolation and loneliness as risk factors for the progression of frailty: the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. Age and Ageing, 47(03), 392-397.

Giacomin, K. C. et al. (2018). Care and functional disabilities in daily activities–ELSI- Brazil. Revista de Saúde Pública, 52(09), 1-12.

He, B. et al. (2019). Prevalence and risk factors for frailty among community-dwelling older people in China: a systematic review and meta-analysis. The Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging, 23(05), 442-450.

Hoogendijk, E. O. et al. (2018). Tracking changes in frailty throughout later life: results from a 17-year longitudinal study in the Netherlands. Age and Ageing, 47(05), 727-733.

Ibge – Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística. (2018). Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílios Contínua. Características dos Moradores e Domicílios.

Jang, A. R. et al. (2021). Social factors predicting improvement of frailty in community‐dwelling older adults: K orean F railty and A ging C ohort S tudy. Geriatrics & Gerontology International, 21(06), 465-471.

Kallenberg, M. H. et al. (2016). Functional and cognitive impairment, frailty, and adverse health outcomes in older patients reaching ESRD—a systematic review. Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, 11(09), 1624-1639.

Lourenço, R. A. et al. (2019). Prevalence of frailty and associated factors in a community-dwelling older people cohort living in Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais, Brazil: Fibra-JF Study. Ciencia e Saúde Coletiva, 24(01), 35-44.

Mata, F. A. F. et al. (2021). Depression and frailty in older adults: A population-based cohort study. Plos One, 16(03), 1-8.

Mazya, A. L., Garvin, P. & Ekdahl, A. W. (2019). Outpatient comprehensive geriatric assessment: effects on frailty and mortality in old people with multimorbidity and high health care utilization. Aging Clinical and Experimental Research, 31(04), 519-525.

Marconi, M. A. & Lakatos, E. M. (2017). Fundamentos de metodologia científica. 8. ed. São Paulo: Atlas.

Melo Filho, J. et al. (2020). Frailty prevalence and related factors in older adults from southern Brazil: A cross-sectional observational study. Clinics, 75(1664), 1-8.

Murukesu, R. R. et al. (2019). Prevalence of frailty and its association with cognitive status and functional fitness among ambulating older adults residing in institutions within west coast of Peninsular Malaysia. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 16(23), 4716-4726.

Murukesu, R. R. et al. (2021). Physical Activity Patterns, Psychosocial Well-Being and Coping Strategies Among Older Persons with Cognitive Frailty of the “WE-RISE” Trial Throughout the COVID-19. Movement Control Order. Clinical Interventions in Aging, 16(04), 415-429.

Nie, P. et al. (2021). The change and correlates of healthy ageing among Chinese older adults: findings from the China health and retirement longitudinal study. BMC Geriatrics, 21(01), 1-13.

Pengpid, S. & Peltzer, K. (2020). Prevalence and associated factors of frailty in community- dwelling older adults in Indonesia, 2014–2015. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(01), 1-13.

Ribeiro, I. A. et al. (2019). Frailty syndrome in the elderly in elderly with chronic diseases in Primary Care. Revista da Escola de Enfermagem da USP, 53(3449), 1-9.

Rivan, N. F. M. et al. (2019). Cognitive frailty among Malaysian older adults: baseline findings from the cohort study. Clinical Interventions in Aging, 25(14), 1343-1352.

Rodriguez, J. J. L. et al. (2018). The prevalence and correlates of frailty in urban and rural populations in Latin America, China, and India: a 10/66 population-based survey. Journal of the American Medical Directors Association, 19(04), 287-295.

Rodrigues, R. A. P. et al. (2018). Frailty syndrome among elderly and associated factors: comparison of two cities. Revista Latino-Americana de Enfermagem, 26(3100), 1-9.

Tavares, D. M. S. et al. (2017). Frailty syndrome and socioeconomic and health characteristics among older adults. Colombia Médica, 48(03), 126-131.

Tarazona-Santabalbina, F. J. et al. (2016). A multicomponent exercise intervention that reverses frailty and improves cognition, emotion, and social networking in the community-dwelling frail elderly: a randomized clinical trial. Journal of the American Medical Directors Association, 17(05), 426-433.

Trevisan, C. et al. (2016). Marital status and frailty in older people: gender differences in the Progetto Veneto Anziani Longitudinal Study. Journal of Women's Health, 25(06), 630-637.

Vaingankar, J. A. et al. (2017). Prevalence of frailty and its association with sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, and resource utilization in a population of Singaporean older adults. Geriatrics & Gerontology International, 17(10), 1444-1454.

Xu, W, LI, Y. X. & Wu, C. (2019). Incidence of frailty among community-dwelling older adults: a nationally representative profile in China. BMC Geriatrics, 19(01), 1-9.

World Health Organization (WHO). (2018). Noncommunicable diseases country profiles 2018.

Wu, C. et al. (2018). Prevalence and correlates of frailty among community-dwelling Chinese older adults: the China health and retirement longitudinal study. The Journals of Gerontology, 73(01), 102-108.

Yamada, M. et al. (2021). The Influence of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Physical Activity and New Incidence of Frailty among Initially Non-Frail Older Adults in Japan: A Follow-Up Online Survey. The Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging, 25(06), 751-756.

Ye, B. et al. (2020). Changes in frailty among community-dwelling Chinese older adults and its predictors: evidence from a two-year longitudinal study. BMC geriatrics, 20(01), 1-10.

Yu, R. et al. (2018). Trajectories of frailty among Chinese older people in Hong Kong between 2001 and 2012: an age-period-cohort analysis. Age and Ageing, 47(02), 254-261.




How to Cite

Sousa, A. C. S., Sales, A. M., Dias, M. F. S. ., & COSTA, A. V. (2022). Association of sociodemographic factors to fragility and chronic diseases in aged populations. Multi-Science Journal, 5(1), 11–16.



Biological and Health Sciences

Most read articles by the same author(s)